اقدم لكم اليوم بعض حلول تمارين كتاب الانجلزية سنة 3اداب وفلسفة
UNITONE: EXPLORING THE PAST (pp. 14-44)
LISTEN AND CONSIDER (pp.15-20)
Use the pictures as an entry to the theme of the unit.
E.g. What do the pictures represent/show?
Where are these monuments located? etc.
Get the students acquainted with the project outcome by referring
them to page 42 so as to set them thinking about it.
Language outcomes (p.15)
Go through the language outcomes with your students so they will have a clear understanding of what the learning objectives of the section are.
1. The civilizations represented on the map are (from left to right) :
Ancient Greek, Ancient Egyptian, Sumerian, Babylonian and Indus Valley civilization.
You may try to elicit the names of the civilizations that later flourished in the same areas.
2. The right answer is the Sumerian Civilization. There is no need to confirm or infirm the hypotheses made by the students at this stage of the lesson since the objective of the question is to raise interest and to make hypotheses. Students will check their answers by listening to the script in the Let’s hear it rubric.
3. Just as for the first question, the aim here is not to test the students but to get them involved in the lesson.
4. The students will give their own definitions. The important point here is to make them think about the theme of the unit. Have some students jot down the words they associate with civilization (E .g. sculpture, literature, astronomy…) on the board and justify their choice.
Let’s hear it (p.16)Task 1 (p.16)
Task 2 (16)
Ancient Greek civilization: 4,000 years ago - Ancient Egyptian civilization: 5,000 years ago - Sumerian civilization: 5,500 years ago -Indus Valley civilization: 4,500 years ago - Chinese Civilization: 4,200 years ago
Task 3 (p.16)
Sumerian civilization 1 (5,500 ago) - Ancient Egyptian civilization 2 (5,000 years ago) - Indus Valley civilization 3 (4,500 years ago)- Chinese civilization 4 (4,200 years ago) Ancient Greek civilization 5 (4,000 years ago)
Task 5 (p.17)
A. The Sumerian civilization is the oldest civilization in the world. T
B. Most of the ancient civilizations rose along rivers. T
C. Agriculture did not form the basis of ancient civilizations. F
D. Ancient civilizations flourished during periods of peace. T
E. Most ancient civilizations fell into ruins because of war. T
F. Ancient Egyptians invented agriculture. F
Task 4 (p.16)
Have the students compare their answers. Then engage them in a discussion particularly with reference to answers to question D and E. These are important issues and should develop consciousness about the importance of peace for development, refinement in the arts and so on.
You: How many civilizations has the world known so far ?
Your partner : Well, according to somehistorians the world has known 26 or 27 civilizations sofar.
You : Which one is the oldest/earliestcivilization ?
Your partner : The oldest/earliest civilization is the Sumerian civilization.
You : How long ago did itstart/begin/flourish/rise ?
Your partner : It started in Mesopotamia some 4000 years ago.
You : What about the Ancient EgyptianCivilization ? When and where did itstart ?
Your partner : Well, Ancient Egyptian Civilization started some 5,000 years ago along the Nile Valley.
You : What was the marjor cause of the collapse of these civilizations ?
Your partner: According to most historians, the major cause was war. Most of the ancient civilizations fell into ruins as aresult of external invasions.
Around the text (pp.17-19)
Grammar Explorer II (pp.17-18)
Grammar Explorer 1 (p.17)
Forme (zero article) civilization is synonymous with (zero article) refinement, (zero article) refinement in (zero article) architecture, in (zero article) law, and in (zero article) life styles. (The) culture and (the) literature of (a) society also contribute to (the) flourishing of its civilization.
Encourage students to explain the use of the three types of articles in English. Place emphasis on the zero article before abstract nouns. Refer students to the Grammar Reference on pp.211-212) only once they have tried to do the task. If necessary, devise a task of your own to consolidate the students’ knowledge of articles.
Vocabulary explorer (pp.18-19)
A. Had to, were able to, andused toexpress in this order: obligation/necessity in the past, ability in the past, habit in the past (or contrast between present and past realities).
B. The negative of had to, were able to, and used to are in this order: didn’t have to (absence of obligation), were unable to, and didn’t use to.
Make sure the students use these negative in sentences for illustration.
Refer students to SE2 Grammar Reference, pp.197-198.
used to live - used to hunt – used to farm – had to migrate – were
able to survive.
Each of the three categories (A-C) contain verbs which are more or less simmilar in meaning. So it doesn’t really matter which comes first in its category.
A. rise – originate- start- begin- emerge
B. mature- develop- evolve – expand- spread - flourish –bloom
C. decline- collapse-fall to decay- into ruins- vanish- disappear
Task 2 (p.18)
1= rise(= emerge) 2= mature 3= disappear (=vanish, fall into ruins, fall to decay) 4= originated, began, started, emerged) 5= spread (= expanded) 6= developed (=evolved) 7= evolved 8= flourished
9= declined 10= collapsed (fell into ruins, fell to decay)
Make sure the students realize the importance of appropriacy in the choice of the words. Synonyms should be used to avoid repetition.
Task 3 (p.19)
Go through the tips to make the students aware of what dependent prepositons are before setting them to task.
1. AncientEgyptconsisted mainly of theNileDelta. 2. Itcontributed greatly to the development of geometry. 3. If its people wereinterested in geometry, it was basically for practical purposes. 4 AncientEgyptdepended a lot on theNileRiver. 5. Its waters wereused for drinking and irrigation.6. Many geometric laws were derived from theirattempt to control the waters of the Nile.7. The Ancient Egyptians became sogood at geometry that Greek scientists like Thales went to study geometry inEgypt.
The sentences should be rearranged in the form of a paragraph. Refer the students to the Grammar Reference pp.212-215 to check some of their answers to task 3 above.
Pronunciation and spelling (p.20)
A. When was (weak form) Christopher Columbus born ?
B. It was (weak form) in 1450.
A. Was (weak form) he a Spaniard ?
B. No, he wasn’t (strong form). He was (weak form) Italian (emphasis on Italian).
A. Were (weak form) there many good Italian navigators and explorers in Columbus’s time ?
B. Yes, there were (strong form) quite many. Amerigo Vespucci was (weak form) one of them. America was (weak form) named after him.
A. Does that mean that Italian explorers were (weak form) the only ones who explored North America ?
B. No, they weren’t (strong form) the only ones. There were (weak form) also Portuguese, Spanish, French, Dutch, and Brititish explorers.
Note: The weak form is used when the auxiliary verb is at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence, and when it is not stressed. The strong form is used when the auxiliary verb is at the end of sentence, or stressed
Think, pair, share (p.20)
Makesure the students contrast the past (used to/had to/were able to) with thepresent (verbs in the present simple). Provide them with some link words (unfortunately, however, on the one hand, on the other hand). Insist on the needfor a concluding sentence.
A century ago, people were able to live in better conditions than their parents thanks to the progress made in science and technology. But in practice, the outcome of this progress was slow to materialise. For instance, most people still used to travel long distances on foot or by stage coach. And as mechanisation was not introduced significantly in daily activities, household chores still had to be done manually, and were therefore time consuming.
On the other hand, community life was still an asset for social cohesion, since people had more opportunities to meet and interact. So they were able to chat with neighbours at shops or in clubs and have a cup of coffee with friends or relatives and tell stories and jokes. Likewise, family visits were frequent and kept the folklore alive, with the grandparents who used to tell traditional tales or sing lullabies or folk songs to their grandchildren. Unfortunately, with the development of audiovisual means such as the cinema, radio, television and then personal appliances like the computer, CD-roms and DVDs, the chances of socialisation are dwindling and the lack of interaction between people may increase stress, loneliness and anxiety.
Could we then complain that we are missing out on some ingredients in life which used to make our great grandparents happier? This is probably so, since closer contacts among neighbours, friends and families had to be beneficial for communal harmony. However, scientific progress in all fields, particularly in medicine, modes of transportation and communication, and agribusiness can only show that our lives are today quite fulfilling and, if anything, more comfortable than a century ago.
READ AND CONSIDER (pp.21-29)
Language outcomes (p.21)
Go through the language outcomes preview with your students to have them acquainted with the objectives of this section.
1. Have the students identify the location of Algerian World Heritage sites, preferably on a map.
The Casbah ofAlgiers : (City of Algiers) (1992) ; The Banu Hammads’ Qalaa: on the western side of Djebel Maadid, overlooking the Hodna plains, some 100 km away from Bejaia (1980) : Timgad: (Colonia, Marciana Trajana, Thamugadi) (December 17, 1982) situated 110 km to the south of Cirta (today’s Constantine), a few kilometres south-east of today’s Batna, 27 km to the west of Tazoult, at the foot of the Aures mountain range; The MzabValley : (December 17, 1982) The Mzab Valley consists of five small fortified towns (Ksour) : El Ateuf, Bou Noura, Beni Isguen, Melika and Ghardaia. Djemila: (formerly known as Cuicul) December 17, 1982, 50 km away from Setif ; Tipaza : (December 17, 1982) Tassili N’ajjer : 1982, (1986) in the Sahara, eastern part of the Ahaggar (altitude between 1000 and 2500 m); The Algerian government declared the Meddak region situated on the heights of the city of Djanet a national park in 1972.
Questions 2 and 3 can admit of more than oneanswer.
This definition of the concept of World Heritage Site can be helpful
for you :
A World Heritage site is a place or structure included on an official list produced by the World Heritage Committee of the United Nations. Places are chosen for the list because they are considered to be of outsanding universal value, often for historical reasons, and are therefore preserved.
The students who have followed the new programme have already
come across the concept in the MS3 book.
3. The importance is in the justification of the answer provided by the students and in making the students aware of the cultural heritage of their country and of its value.
Taking a closer look (p.21)
Interact orally with the students using the title and the illustration to the text on pages 22-23.
E.g. What does the picture represent? What does the text deal with?
Where is it taken from ? To whom is it addressed?
Have them skim through the text to check some of the answers they have providing during the interaction. Then move on to the task proper.
1.False 2.True 3.True 4.True 5.False
Have the students refer to the text to justify their answers.
Grammar Explorer I (pp.23-24)
Around the text (pp.23-27)
B. The superlatives of superiority
A. The comparatives ofsuperiority: It has morerock drawings and engravings thanany other prehistoric Saharan sites.
The comparatives ofequality: No country in North Africa has as much access to the Mediterranean sea and the Sahara asAlgeria.
qThese rock paintings, engravings and remains have yielded asmuch information as we need in order for us to have a clear picture of life used to be like in the Sahara of Prehistoric times.
qThe Tassili-n’Ajjar seems to have had as few exchanges with the Phoenician and Roman civilizations as the other Saharan sites of our country.
The comparatives ofinferiority
qAlgiershad lessinfluence on international commerce than other Algerian maritime cities because it had fewer natural harbours (than the other maritime cities).
qAlgeriahas less World Heritage Sites than some other countries.
The superlatives of inferiority
qOf all the sites of Southern Algeria, the Tassili n’Ajjer has the most prestige.
qIt contains the most remains.
qArchaeologists are still undecided about which of these Saharan sites contains the fewest traces of these ancient civilizations.
qOnly the least amount of merchandise transited through it.
Interact with the students to help them explain how the comparative and superlative forms of quantity words are formed. Help the students synthesize information by drawing the table on page 217 on the board.
Task 1 (p.26)
Refer the students to the Grammar Reference pp.216-217 to check their answers.
1. How much 2. Little (not much) 3. the least 4. Less than 5. Much 6.many 7. More 8. most 9. much 10. little 11.less 12. fewer 13. many (a lot of) 14. the most
Grammar explorer II (p.25)
Task 1 (p.25)
Complex sentences (Concession)
Despite the factthat that it was considered a trading post by both the Romans and the Phoenicians, only the least amount of merchandise transited through it.
In spite of thefact that the Casbah underwent some changes during the French colonial rule, it still remains the throbbing cultural heart of the city of Algiers.
Complex sentence (Time)
Afterthe Turkish Baba Aruj brothers had gained control of the city in 1516, Algiers thrivedas a relatively independent city under the nominal control of the Ottoman Empire.
Task 2 (p.25)
A. but, yet, however, though, although (concession)
When, as soon as (time)
B. Emphasize the sequencing of the actions (First action: past perfect, Second action: simple past) Refer the students to Grammar Reference pp. 226-227.
Task 3 (p.25)
A. As soon as Tarik Ibn-Ziyad (had) crossed the Straits of Gibraltar, he gave his famous speech. (As soon as can also be in middle position.
B. After the Muslims had settled in Andalusia, they transformedit into a prestigious cultural area. (After can also be placed in middle position and replaced by when.)
C. Though/ despite the fact that/in spite of the fact that Andalusiahad an extremely diverse population, it maintained its social cohesion and harmony for many years.
D. The Muslims had stayed in Andalusia until the Spaniards captured the Alhambra in 1492 and brought down the Kingdom of Grenada.
E. Though/ despite the fact that/in spite of the fact that the Muslims left Andalusia in 1492, Islamic civilization remains an enriching element of the Spanish cultural heritage.
Develop (v), development(n.) ,developed/developing (adj.)
Aim: vocabulary building through affixation
Invent (v), invention, inventor (n), inventive (adj), inventively (adv.)
Enrich (v), enrichment (n), enriching (adj.), adv. none
Achieve (v), achievement, achiever (n), achievable (adj.), (adv.) none
Devote (v), devotion, devotee (n), devoted (adj.), devotedly (adv.)
Responsibility (n), responsible (adj.), responsibly (adv.)
Improve (v), improvement (n), improved (adj.), (adv.) none
Practise (v), practice (n), practical (adj.), practically (adv.)
Hospitality (n), hospitable (adj.), (v.) none, hospitably (adv.)
Dedicate (v), dedication (n), dedicated (adj.), (adv.) None
(V) none, science (n.) ,scientific (adj.) scientifically (adv.)
Task 2 (p.26)
(V) none, culture(n), cultural (adj.), culturally (adv.)
Task 3 (p.28)
1. enrich 2. enrichment 3. had invented 4. inventions
5. achievements 6. scientific 7. cultural 8. improvement (=development) 9. responsibility 10. devoted (dedicated) 11. inventive 12. scientific 13. improved
Task 3 (p.27)
A. The Aztec civilization disintegrated as a result of the Spanish conquest. The Spanish conquistador Hernan Ferdinand Cortés (1485-1547) dispossessed the Aztecs of their wealth and depopulated the major Aztec cities.
B. Historians disagree on the real causes of the fall of Maya (also Mayan) civilization. Some of them say that its disintegration was due to the spread of epidemics. But other disapprove by arguing that it came as a result of the deregulation of the climate and domestic dissatisfaction and discontent.
Task 4 (p.27)
Some of the words which can carry prefixes dis- or de- are :
disappoint, disagree, dissatisfaction, decentralize, demilitarize …
Task 5 (p.27)
well-informed - well-known – well-established - well-kept – well-refined – well-founded – well-balanced – well-preserved – well-supported – well-documented – well-appreciated
1. well-refined 2. well-preserved/kept - 3. well-documented
4. well-informed 5. well-appreciated
Task 1 (p.28)
Jean François Champollion le Jeune (1790-1832) studied Egyptian hieroglyphics. At the beginning he thought that he could decipher this system of writing by using the Coptic language from which he believed Ancient Egyptian developed. But he was proved to be terribly wrong. When he realized that he was just lying to himself, he stopped trying to decipher the hieroglyphics with the help of the Coptic language and turned to the study of the hieroglyphics as an independent system of writing. The study of the Rosetta Stone, a slab of basalt with inscriptions datingfrom 197 BC permitted him to discover the mysteries of the hieroglyphic system of writing in 1824. Champollion enjoyedgreat popularity among his contemporaries. Today he is consideredthe founder of Egyptology.
Task 2 (p.28)
Studied, permitted /id/
Proved, realized, turned, considered, believed /d/
Task 4 (p.28)
Aim: Sound-spelling links (pronunciation of the letters ch)
-Archives, architect, architecture, archipelago, alchemy, archaic, archetype, epoch, archaelogy, Archemides, archangel /k/
-Church, coach, archer, archway, archduke, artichoke /t©/
Follow the instruction. Ask your students to give other examples.
Think, pair, share (p.30)
Study the closely the model essaybelow and make the best use of it in preparation for theexercise.
There are three major threats to our civilisation, which can lead to the destruction of mankind. We have first nuclear energy, which has been a constant liability ever since the explosion of atomic bombs in 1945; there is also pollution, a major cause for concern with the massive and noxious increase in industrial activities and mechanisation; finally, climate change constitutes another threat, as an outcome of the first two mentioned problems.
The escalation of nuclear weaponry since World War Two has exposed humanity to a nuclear war that would not compare at all with Hiroshima and Nagasaki, since it could wipe out life on earth many times over. The Cold War was a period of tension between the two most heavily equipped nations in terms of nuclear warheads, the USA and the USSR. The Détentethat came after did not suppress all worries, since other countries have the bomb, and could use it any time.
There are also indirect consequences to owning nuclear energy. Indeed, a lethal form of pollution can originate from it if accidents in nuclear power plants occur. But apparently less dangerous forms of pollution, generated by an ever- increasing industrialisation, can also cause severe illnesses and deaths. We can think of all the chemicals dumped by factories underground, or in rivers and seas, or of the enormous amounts of smoke emitted in the air by factories and vehicles. All of these are causing all sorts of illnesses in humans and threatening wildlife.
Apart from these direct consequences, the third threat to our civilisation, climate change, is directly related to the first two mentioned. Smoke has resulted in the greenhouse effect, responsible for the increase in mean temperature in the world. Consequently, the ice caps in the north and south poles are shrinking, the sea level is rising, rains have become irregular, hurricanes are more frequent, monsoons are more destructive, droughts have intensified, and have reached usually wet parts of the world. Therefore, the danger of famine is real , and can even lead to dramatic wars over the possession of the meagre resources remaining. Surely the impending threat of nuclear warfare, and the lethal chemicals spread in the environment make the world a dangerous place to live. The tons of smoke sent out in the atmosphere also constitute a health hazard, and are responsible for climate change. There are indeed urgent measures to be taken by governments to make human activities safer if our civilisation is to survive and thrive.